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International consensus on ANA patterns (ICAP): the bumpy road towards a consensus on reporting ANA results

  • Damoiseaux, Jan1
  • von Mühlen, Carlos A.2
  • Garcia-De La Torre, Ignacio3
  • Carballo, Orlando Gabriel4, 5
  • de Melo Cruvinel, Wilson6
  • Francescantonio, Paulo Luiz Carvalho6
  • Fritzler, Marvin J.7
  • Herold, Manfred8
  • Mimori, Tsuneyo9, 10
  • Satoh, Minoru11
  • Andrade, Luis E. C.12, 13
  • Chan, Edward K. L.14
  • Conrad, Karsten15
  • 1 Maastricht University Medical Center, Central Diagnostic Laboratory, Maastricht, P. Debyelaan 25, Maastricht, 6229 HX, Netherlands , Maastricht (Netherlands)
  • 2 Brazilian Society of Autoimmunity, Porto Alegre, Brazil , Porto Alegre (Brazil)
  • 3 University of Guadalajara, Department of Immunology and Rheumatology, Hospital General de Occidente, Guadalajara, Mexico , Guadalajara (Mexico)
  • 4 Hospital Carlos G. Durand, Laboratory of Immunology, Buenos Aires, Argentina , Buenos Aires (Argentina)
  • 5 Instituto Universitario del Hospital Italiano, Department of Immunology, Buenos Aires, Argentina , Buenos Aires (Argentina)
  • 6 Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Goiás, Goiânia, Brazil , Goiânia (Brazil)
  • 7 University of Calgary, Department of Medicine, Cumming School of Medicine, Calgary, AB, Canada , Calgary (Canada)
  • 8 Medical University of Innsbruck, Department of Internal Medicine VI, Innsbruck, Austria , Innsbruck (Austria)
  • 9 Kyoto University, Department of the Control for Rheumatic Diseases, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan , Kyoto (Japan)
  • 10 Kyoto University, Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan , Kyoto (Japan)
  • 11 University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Clinical Nursing, Kitakyushu, Japan , Kitakyushu (Japan)
  • 12 Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Rheumatology Division, Escola Paulista de Medicina, São Paulo, Brazil , São Paulo (Brazil)
  • 13 Fleury Medicine and Health Laboratories, Immunology Division, São Paulo, Brazil , São Paulo (Brazil)
  • 14 University of Florida, Department of Oral Biology, Gainesville, FL, USA , Gainesville (United States)
  • 15 Technical University of Dresden, Institute of Immunology, Dresden, Germany , Dresden (Germany)
Published Article
Autoimmunity Highlights
Springer International Publishing
Publication Date
Jan 30, 2016
DOI: 10.1007/s13317-016-0075-0
Springer Nature


The International Consensus on ANA Patterns (ICAP) was initiated as a workshop aiming to thoroughly discuss and achieve consensus regarding the morphological patterns observed in the indirect immunofluorescence assay on HEp-2 cells. One of the topics discussed at the second ICAP workshop, and addressed in this paper, was the harmonization of reporting ANA test results. This discussion centered on the issue if cytoplasmic and mitotic patterns should be reported as positive or negative. This report outlines the issues that impact on two major different reporting methods. Although it was appreciated by all participants that cytoplasmic and mitotic patterns are clinically relevant, implications for existing diagnostic/classification criteria for ANA-associated diseases in particular hampered a final consensus on this topic. Evidently, a more concerted action of all relevant stakeholders is required. Future ICAP workshops may help to facilitate this action.

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