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Intermittent-Hypoxia-Induced Autophagy Activation Through the ER-Stress-Related PERK/eIF2α/ATF4 Pathway is a Protective Response to Pancreatic β-Cell Apoptosis

Authors
  • Song, Shuling
  • Tan, Jin
  • Miao, Yuyang
  • Sun, Zuoming
  • Zhang, Qiang
Type
Published Article
Journal
Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Publisher
S. Karger AG
Publication Date
Dec 14, 2018
Volume
51
Issue
6
Pages
2955–2971
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1159/000496047
PMID: 30562747
Source
Karger
Keywords
License
Green
External links

Abstract

Background/Aims: Intermittent hypoxia (IH) causes apoptosis in pancreatic β-cells, but the potential mechanisms remain unclear. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, autophagy, and apoptosis are interlocked in an extensive crosstalk. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the contributions of ER stress and autophagy to IH-induced pancreatic β-cell apoptosis. Methods: We established animal and cell models of IH, and then inhibited autophagy and ER stress by pharmacology and small interfering RNA (siRNA) in INS-1 cells and rats. The levels of biomarkers for autophagy, ER stress, and apoptosis were evaluated by immunoblotting and immunofluorescence. The number of autophagic vacuoles was observed by transmission electron microscopy. Results: IH induced autophagy activation both in vivo and in vitro, as evidenced by increased autophagic vacuole formation and LC3 turnover, and decreased SQSTM1 level. The levels of ER-stress-related proteins, including GRP78, CHOP, caspase 12, phosphorylated (p)-protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase (PERK), p-eIF2α, and activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) were increased under IH conditions. Inhibition of ER stress with tauroursodeoxycholic acid or 4-phenylbutyrate partially blocked IH-induced autophagy in INS-1 cells. Furthermore, inhibition of PERK with GSK2606414 or siRNA blocked the ERstress-related PERK/eIF2α/ATF4 signaling pathway and inhibited autophagy induced by IH, which indicates that IH-induced autophagy activation is dependent on this signaling pathway. Promoting autophagy with rapamycin alleviated IH-induced apoptosis, whereas inhibition of autophagy with chloroquine or autophagy-related gene (Atg5 and Atg7) siRNA aggravated pancreatic β-cell apoptosis caused by IH. Conclusion: IH induces autophagy activation through the ER-stress-related PERK/eIF2α/ATF4 signaling pathway, which is a protective response to pancreatic β-cell apoptosis caused by IH.

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