Estrogen deficiency is associated with cerebral aneurysm rupture, but the precise mechanism is unknown. To test the hypothesis that IL-6 is required for the increase in aneurysm rupture rate observed in estrogen-deficient mice. We analyzed IL-6 expression in human cerebral aneurysms. We induced cerebral aneurysms in estrogen-deficient female C57BL/6 mice that had undergone 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) treatment or bilateral ovariectomy (OVE). Mice were blindly randomized to selective IL-6 inhibition (IL-6 receptor [IL-6R] neutralizing antibody, n = 25) or control (isotype-matched IgG, n = 28). Murine cerebral arteries at the circle of Willis were assessed for aneurysm rupture and macrophage infiltration. IL-6 is expressed in human cerebral aneurysms, but not in control arteries. Serum IL-6 is elevated in ovariectomized female mice compared to sham control (14.3 ± 1.7 pg/mL vs 7.4 ± 1.5 pg/mL, P = .008). Selective IL-6R inhibition suppressed cerebral aneurysm rupture in estrogen-deficient mice compared with control (VCD: 31.6% vs 70.0%, P = .026; OVE: 28.6% vs 65.2%, P = .019). IL-6R inhibition had no effect on formation or rupture rate in wild-type mice. IL-6R neutralizing antibody significantly reduced macrophage infiltration at the circle of Willis (1.9 ± 0.2 vs 5.7 ± 0.6 cells/2500 μm2; n = 8 vs n = 15; P < .001). IL-6 is increased in the serum of estrogen-deficient mice and appears to play a role in promoting murine estrogen deficiency-associated cerebral aneurysm rupture via enhanced macrophage infiltration at the circle of Willis. Inhibition of IL-6 signaling via IL-6 receptor neutralizing antibody inhibits aneurysm rupture in estrogen-deficient mice. IL-6 receptor inhibition had no effect on aneurysm formation or rupture in wild-type animals. Copyright © 2019 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons.