Henry VIII and Winston Churchill are clinically instructive when appreciating inter-individual variability in disease expression. Both were illustrious English leaders who as young men sustained multiple traumatic brain injuries, which may (or may not) have profoundly influenced their successes and failures of later years. Both men were admired and castigated; both struggled at various times with their bodies and their minds. Ultimately, one was initially a great man who descended as a flawed leader; the other was initially a flawed man who ascended as a great leader. Their similar yet contrasting case histories define the full spectrum (“Tudor-Churchill Spectrum”) of inter-individual variability in response to brain disease or injury. The Tudor-Churchill spectrum is the immense variability between individual patients and reminds us that every person is unique, deserving of individualized thought, personalized diagnosis and tailored treatment.