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The Interactive Effects of Natural Factor and Pollution Source on Surface Water Quality in the Lower Mekong River Basin, Southwestern Vietnam

  • Binh Thanh Nguyen,1
  • Vo, Long Dinh1
  • Nguyen, Tong Xuan1
  • Quang, Ngo Xuan2
  • 1 Institute of Environmental Science, Engineering, and Management, Industrial University of Ho Chi Minh City, 12 Nguyen Van Bao, Ho Chi Minh City, Go Vap District, Vietnam , Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnam)
  • 2 Faculty of Natural Sciences, Thu Dau Mot University, no. 6, Tran Van On Street, Phu Hoa WardThu Dau Mot City, Binh Duong Province, Vietnam , Phu Hoa WardThu Dau Mot City (Vietnam)
Published Article
Water Resources
Pleiades Publishing
Publication Date
Sep 15, 2020
DOI: 10.1134/S0097807820050024
Springer Nature


AbstractSurface water quality could be interactively affected by the natural factor (seasonal variation) and human pollution source (industrial, agricultural, and residential sources). The current study was conducted in Hau Giang province in southwestern Vietnam (1) to investigate the interactive effect of natural factor and human pollution source and (2) to identify potential mechanisms related to the effects on quality parameters of surface water. Water samples were taken from 29 points in 2013, 2014, and 2015 in the dry and rainy seasons in industrial, agricultural, and residential zones to measure 11 parameters. While pH, \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$${\text{NH}}_{4}^{ + }$$\end{document}, \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$${\text{PO}}_{4}^{{3 - }}$$\end{document}, and temperature were significantly higher in the dry than the rainy season, \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$${\text{NO}}_{3}^{ - }$$\end{document}, dissolved oxygen (DO), and Fe were significantly affected by both experimental factors. The interactive effect of the two factors on biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and total suspended solids (TSS) was significant. Residential and industrial zones had higher BOD5 and COD concentrations in the dry than in the rainy season, while agricultural zones showed no differences between the two seasons. The dilution effect in the rainy season and concentrative effect in the dry season may explain the seasonal difference in the residential and industrial zones. Meanwhile, agricultural runoff could be a mechanism to bring more organic matter to the sampling points during the rainy season, neutralizing the dilution effect. In conclusion, pollution sources such as agricultural production, residential areas, and industrial manufacturing may directly affect surface water quality, while, the seasonal variation could modify the impacts by introducing dilution and runoff effects.

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