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Interactive effects of acute exercise and carbohydrate-energy replacement on insulin sensitivity in healthy adults.

Authors
  • Johnson-Bonson, Drusus A1, 2
  • Narang, Benjamin J1, 3, 4
  • Davies, Russell G1
  • Hengist, Aaron1
  • Smith, Harry A1
  • Watkins, Jonathan D1
  • Taylor, Harry5
  • Walhin, Jean-Philippe1
  • Gonzalez, Javier T1
  • Betts, James A1
  • 1 Centre for Nutrition, Exercise & Metabolism, Department for Health, University of Bath, Bath, Somerset, United Kingdom. , (United Kingdom)
  • 2 School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, United Kingdom. , (United Kingdom)
  • 3 Department of Automation, Biocybernetics, and Robotics, Institut Jožef Stefan, Ljubljana, Slovenia. , (Slovenia)
  • 4 Faculty of Sport, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia. , (Slovenia)
  • 5 Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, Merseyside, United Kingdom. , (United Kingdom)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism
Publisher
Canadian Science Publishing
Publication Date
Oct 01, 2021
Volume
46
Issue
10
Pages
1207–1215
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2020-1043
PMID: 33831317
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

This study investigated whether carbohydrate-energy replacement immediately after prolonged endurance exercise attenuates insulin sensitivity the following morning, and whether exercise improves insulin sensitivity the following morning independent of an exercise-induced carbohydrate deficit. Oral glucose tolerance and whole-body insulin sensitivity were compared the morning after 3 evening conditions, involving (1) treadmill exercise followed by a carbohydrate replacement drink (200 or 150 g maltodextrin for males and females, respectively; CHO-replace); (2) treadmill exercise followed by a non-caloric, taste-matched placebo (CHO-deficit); or (3) seated rest with no drink provided (Rest). Treadmill exercise involved 90 minutes at ∼80% age-predicted maximum heart rate. Seven males and 2 females (aged 23 ± 1 years; body mass index 24.0 ± 2.7 kg·m-2) completed all conditions in a randomised order. Matsuda index improved by 22% (2.2 [0.3, 4.0] au, p = 0.03) and HOMA2-IR improved by 10% (-0.04 [-0.08, 0.00] au, p = 0.04) in CHO-deficit versus CHO-replace, without corresponding changes in postprandial glycaemia. Outcomes were similar between Rest and other conditions. These data suggest that improvements to insulin sensitivity in healthy populations following acute moderate/vigorous intensity endurance exercise may be dependent on the presence of a carbohydrate-energy deficit. Novelty: Restoration of carbohydrate balance following acute endurance exercise attenuated whole-body insulin sensitivity. Exercise per se failed to enhance whole-body insulin sensitivity. Maximising or prolonging the post-exercise carbohydrate deficit may enhance acute benefits to insulin sensitivity.

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