The inhibitory action of caffeine on calcium (Ca2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and interference with mitochondrial (Ca2+) fluxes by a mitochondrial uncoupler protonfore CCCP were utilized to define a calcium pool responsible for potentiation of post-rest twitch tension in guinea-pig atria. The Ca2+ fluxes were assessed by means of 45Ca2+. Caffeine and CCCP when applied separately did not affect post-rat 45Ca2+ content. Yet, when they were applied together it was markedly reduced to the resting level. It is concluded that a possible source of contractile Ca2+ may be located in mitochondria and an eventual shift of Ca2+ between mitochondria and the SR seems to be a plausible assumption.