The interaction between Leydig and Sertoli cells grown in co-culture was studied. After 3 to 4 days in culture, Leydig and Sertoli cells formed monolayers. To distinguish functional Leydig cells from Sertoli cells, a histochemical test for delta 5,3 beta-HSD activity was performed, and cells which showed a positive reaction were defined as Leydig cells, in contrast to Sertoli cells which did not manifest enzyme activity. Testosterone and oestradiol levels in culture media were determined by radioimmunological assays. Sertoli cells in co-culture showed a tendency to organize themselves as in vivo, forming a kind of pseudo-wall of the tubule. This process becomes more evident with the time of culture. Co-cultures secreted more androgens than Leydig cells alone and more oestradiol than Sertoli cells alone. This influence was strengthened by the presence of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) in the culture medium, which was not the case in cultures of Leydig and Sertoli cells cultured separately.