The effect of intravenous ciprofloxacin (CPX) pretreatment on the kinetics and brain sensitivity for thiopental was studied in male rats using a previously developed electroencephalographic (EEG) threshold method. Thiopental was administered intravenously with constant infusion rate. Immediately after the appearance of the first burst suppression of 1 sec. or more (the "silent-second") in the EEG the infusion was stopped and the rats were killed by decapitation. The dose of thiopental needed to reach the criterion of silent-second was slightly reduced in ciprofloxacin pretreated rats when compared with saline pretreated controls. One rat that developed seizures after CPX pretreatment needed a considerably reduced dose of thiopental to induce the silent-second. The serum concentrations of thiopental were markedly reduced in the experimental group while no significant differences were found in the concentrations of thiopental in the different parts of the central nervous system (CNS), fat or muscle tissue. The kinetics of CPX were also affected. The experimental group (CPX + thiopental treated) had significant higher brain concentrations of CPX than the corresponding only CPX treated control group while no differences were found in the serum concentrations of CPX between the groups. As previously suggested, the distribution of thiopental in the CNS is not only dependent on its lipid solubility, but also as a weak organic acid, on the transport system for organic acids out of the CNS which both thiopental and ciprofloxacin seem to use and mutually compete for it.