The purpose of this study was to understand factors that influence future mammography intention and to differentiate significant factors influencing future mammography intention between those who have past mammography experience and those who do not. A cross-sectional study design was used to analyze characteristics and factors that influence the intention to have a mammogram among middle-aged Korean women. A total of 310 women, aged 30 and older, participated in the study. The study results indicated that a combination of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Reasoned Action was effective in predicting mammography intention of Korean women. It found that knowledge, perceived benefits, self-efficacy, and the subjective norm were significant factors affecting mammography intention in women who have past mammography experience. For women who have never had a mammogram, age, knowledge, perceived benefits, and self-efficacy provided a significant contribution to predicting mammography intention. Thirty-three to 43% of the variability in mammography intention can be explained by the combined influence of these independent variables. The findings from this study can be used to guide the design and implementation of tailored health education and promotion programs for Korean women according to their mammography experience, so as to increase mammography screening.