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Integrins αvβ3 and α4β1 act as coreceptors for fractalkine, and the integrin-binding defective mutant of fractalkine is an antagonist of CX3CR1.

Authors
Type
Published Article
Journal
The Journal of Immunology
Publisher
The American Association of Immunologists
Volume
189
Issue
12
Pages
5809–5809
Identifiers
DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.1200889
Source
Takada Lab - UC Davis dermatology-ucdavis
License
Unknown

Abstract

The membrane-bound chemokine fractalkine (FKN, CX3CL1) on endothelial cells plays a role in leukocyte trafficking. The chemokine domain (FKN-CD) is sufficient for inducing FKN signaling (e.g., integrin activation), and FKN-CD binds to its receptor CX3CR1 on leukocytes. Whereas previous studies suggest that FKN-CD does not directly bind to integrins, our docking simulation studies predicted that FKN-CD directly interacts with integrin α(v)β(3). Consistent with this prediction, we demonstrated that FKN-CD directly bound to α(v)β(3) and α(4)β(1) at a very high affinity (K(D) of 3.0 × 10(-10) M to α(v)β(3) in 1 mM Mn(2+)). Also, membrane-bound FKN bound to integrins α(v)β(3) and α(4)β(1), suggesting that the FKN-CD/integrin interaction is biologically relevant. The binding site for FKN-CD in α(v)β(3) was similar to those for other known α(v)β(3) ligands. Wild-type FKN-CD induced coprecipitation of integrins and CX3CR1 in U937 cells, suggesting that FKN-CD induces ternary complex formation (CX3CR1, FKN-CD, and integrin). Based on the docking model, we generated an integrin-binding defective FKN-CD mutant (the K36E/R37E mutant). K36E/R37E was defective in ternary complex formation and integrin activation, whereas K36E/R37E still bound to CX3CR1. These results suggest that FKN-CD binding to CX3CR1 is not sufficient for FKN signaling, and that FKN-CD binding to integrins as coreceptors and the resulting ternary complex formation are required for FKN signaling. Notably, excess K36E/R37E suppressed integrin activation induced by wild-type FKN-CD and effectively suppressed leukocyte infiltration in thioglycollate-induced peritonitis. These findings suggest that K36E/R37E acts as a dominant-negative CX3CR1 antagonist and that FKN-CD/integrin interaction is a novel therapeutic target in inflammatory diseases.

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