Antibiotic pollution causes worldwide concern due to its more apparent consequences, namely antibiotic resistance and destruction of the environment. Extensive use of antibiotics in human and veterinary drugs releases a significant amount of toxins into the sphere of living matter, causing adverse ecological impacts. This requires the design of new analytical protocols for the effective mitigation and monitoring of hazardous pharmaceutical products to reduce the environmental burden. Therefore, we present here the hydrothermal synthesis of samarium vanadate/carbon nanofiber (SmV/CNF) composite for the determination of sulfadiazine (SFZ). The synergistic effect arising from the combination of SmV and CNF accelerates charge transfer kinetics along with the creation of more surface-active sites that benefit effective detection. The structural and compositional disclosure indicates the high purity and superior attributes of the composite material that possesses the ability to improve catalytic performance. The proposed SmV/CNF sensor exhibits important static characteristics such as wide linear response ranges, low detection limit, high sensitivity and selectivity, and increased stability. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the electrochemical performance of SmV/CNF, establishing its potential application in real-time analysis of environmentally hazardous contaminants. Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier B.V.