Populus alba × Populus glandulosa (84K poplar) is model material with excellent genetic engineering resource and ornamental value. In our study, AmRosea1 (Antirrhinum majus) was overexpressed in 84K poplar, and the transgenic 84K (AM) poplar with high content of anthocyanin exhibited red pigmentation leaves. The transcriptome analysis between wild type (WT) and AM showed that 170 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (86 up-regulated and 84 down-regulated) were found, and some DEGs were involved in flavone and flavonol biosynthesis, flavonoid biosynthesis and anthocyanin biosynthesis. The metabolome analysis showed that 13 anthocyanins-related differentially accumulated metabolites (DAMs) were detected in AM. The correlation analysis between DEGs and DAMs were performed, and the results revealed that 18 DEGs, including 11 MYB genes, two BZ1 genes, one FG2 gene, one ANS gene, and three IF7MAT genes, were negatively or positively correlated with 13 DAMs. The phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that there was high homology between AmRosea1 and PagMYB113, and MYB113 co-expressed with BZ1, ANS and DFR directly. Our results elucidated the molecular mechanism of plant color change mediated by anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway, which laid the foundation for the development and utilization of colorful woody plant.