D-erythrose (5.0 to 20.0 mM) stimulates insulin release. This insulinotropic action of erythrose displays several features in common with that of glucose. First, erythrose (20 mM) causes a shift to the left of the sigmoidal curve relating the secretory rate to the glucose eoncentration, but fails to enhance the maximal response to glucose. Second, the secretory response to erythrose occurs as an early peak followed by a phase of sustained release. Third, erythrose increases the output of lactate from the islets. Last, erythrose inhibits the efflux of 45calcium and favours its accumulation in isolated islets. It is suggested that, whether in response to glucose or erythrose, an increase in glycolytic flux may represent the key process involved in the identification of the secretagogue, a subsequent remodeling of calcium fluxes being apparently responsible for the activation of the insulin-releasing system.