Insomnia is a very frequent complaint /periodically or permanently it affects about 35% of the population/ and is a serious sociological problem. This term covers at least four types of sleep disorders: difficult falling asleep, frequent awakening, too early awakening and impairment of sleep quality--sleep quantitatively sufficient but failing to produce a feeling of rest. Insomnia may be sporadic, short-lasting and chronic. The last type requires particularly medical assistance since impairment of sleep quality can lead to drug dependence. In every case of insomnia it should be tried to explain its cause /neurosis, depression, somatic diseases with symptoms leading to sleep disturbances, toxic factors such as alcohol, drugs, inappropriate sleep hygiene etc./. In the treatment the basic role is played by removal of causes and better observation of sleep hygiene. Hypnotic drugs are indicated in sporadic and short-lasting insomnia, but in chronic insomnia they should be used cautiously and not continuously. Barbiturates have been abandoned recently and benzodiazepines have replaced them. They are, however, fraught with numerous faults. Cyclopyrolones /Zolpidem, Zopiklon/ are the new generation of hypnotic drugs in which the negative features of benzodiazepines have been partly excluded. Their half-life is short, they cause no rebound effect, adverse effects are better tolerated and are less frequent, drug dependence is not produced.