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Insights on discovery, efficacy, safety and clinical applications of ghrelin receptor agonist capromorelin in veterinary medicine.

Authors
  • Rathore, Manisha1
  • Das, Nabanita2
  • Ghosh, Nayan3
  • Guha, Rajdeep4, 5
  • 1 Laboratory Animal Facility, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, India. , (India)
  • 2 National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Raebareli, India. , (India)
  • 3 Division of Medicinal and Process Chemistry, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, India. , (India)
  • 4 Laboratory Animal Facility, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, India. [email protected]. , (India)
  • 5 Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Ghaziabad, India. [email protected]. , (India)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Veterinary Research Communications
Publisher
Springer-Verlag
Publication Date
Feb 01, 2024
Volume
48
Issue
1
Pages
1–10
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1007/s11259-023-10184-0
PMID: 37493940
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Growth hormone and insulin like growth factor-1 plays an important role in the regulation of body composition and metabolism. Growth Hormone is released from the pituitary through a specific G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) called growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a expressed in the hypothalamus. Ghrelin is a peptide hormone released from the cells in the stomach, which stimulates appetite and food intake in mammals, regulates gut motility, gastric acid secretion, taste sensation, circadian rhythm, learning and memory, oxidative stress, autophagy, glucose metabolism etc. When the release of the endogenous ligand GHSR-1a, i.e., ghrelin is malfunctioned or stopped, external substitutes are administrated to induce the stimulation of growth hormone and appetite. A class of compound known as ghrelin receptor agonists are developed as an external substitute of ghrelin for regulation and stimulation of growth hormone in frailty, for body weight gain, muscle mass gain, prevention of cachexia and for the treatment of chronic fatigue syndromes. Capromorelin [Entyce™ (Aratana Therapeutics, Leawood, KS, USA)] is the only FDA (Food and Drug Administration) approved (May 2016) drug used for stimulating appetite in dogs and was marketed in the fall of 2017. In 2020, USFDA approved Capromorelin [Elura™ (Elanco US Inc.)] for the management of weight loss in chronic kidney disease of cats. This article reviews the discovery of the ghrelin receptor agonist capromorelin, its efficacy, safety, clinical applications and aims to delineate its further scope of use in veterinary practice. © 2023. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature B.V.

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