The overuse of insecticides with limited modes of action has led to resistance in mosquito vectors. Thus, insecticides with novel modes of action are needed. Secondary metabolites in Madagascan plants of the genus Cinnamosma (Canellaceae) are commonly used in traditional remedies and known to elicit antifeedant and toxic effects in insect pests. Here we test the hypothesis that extracts of Cinnamosma sp. enriched in drimane sesquiterpenes are toxic and/or antifeedant to the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti . We show that the bark and root extracts, which contain a higher abundance of drimane sesquiterpenes compared to leaves, were the most efficacious. Screening isolated compounds revealed cinnamodial to be the primary driver of adulticidal activity, whereas cinnamodial, polygodial, cinnafragrin A, and capsicodendrin contributed to the larvicidal activity. Moreover, an abundant lactone (cinnamosmolide) in the root extract synergized the larvicidal effects of cinnamodial. The antifeedant activity of the extracts was primarily contributed to cinnamodial, polygodial, and cinnamolide. Parallel experiments with warburganal isolated from Warburgia ugandensis (Canellaceae) revealed that aldehydes are critical for—and a hydroxyl modulates—insecticidal activity. Our results indicate that plant drimane sesquiterpenes provide valuable chemical platforms for developing insecticides and repellents to control mosquito vectors.