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The ins and outs of getting in: structures and signals that enhance BCR or Fc receptor-mediated antigen presentation.

Authors
  • Shen, L
  • Lang, M L
  • Wade, W F
Type
Published Article
Journal
Immunopharmacology
Publication Date
Sep 01, 2000
Volume
49
Issue
3
Pages
227–240
Identifiers
PMID: 10996020
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

Antigen-presenting cells internalize antigen by fluid-phase pinocytosis or by endocytosis via surface receptors such as the B cell receptor (BCR) and Fc receptors for IgG, IgA and IgE (FcR). While both modes of internalization lead to antigen presentation it is recognized that receptor-mediated endocytosis greatly enhances the efficiency of processing and antigen presentation. Receptors facilitate the entry of antigen into the endocytic pathway by interaction of their internalization motifs with the endocytic machinery. These motifs include tyrosine-based, dileucine and casein kinase-like motifs. However these structures appear insufficient to support processing of cryptic epitopes, leading to a limited immune response. Cryptic epitope processing appears dependent on receptor signaling which is mediated by immunoreceptor tyrosine activation motifs (ITAMs). The signaling cascade which follows receptor crosslinking promotes reorganization and acidification of the late endocytic compartment or MIIC. Signaling events downstream of Syk, in particular calcium flux and protein kinase C activation, are necessary for MIIC induction. PI(3) kinase is also involved at multiple steps in antigen presentation, including production of PIP3 and transport of cathepsins. PIP3 is crucial both as a binding substrate for proteins implicated in vesicle transport and for the recruitment of signaling molecules to the plasma membrane. Among PIP3 activated molecules, protein kinase B (PKB) has been linked to endocytic function. We observe association of activated PKB with the MIIC after signaling through antigen presentation-competent receptors, but not mutant, presentation-defective receptors.

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