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The Ins and Outs of Central Nervous System Inflammation—Lessons Learned from Multiple Sclerosis

Authors
  • Ramaglia, Valeria
  • Rojas, Olga
  • Naouar, Ikbel
  • Gommerman, Jennifer L.
Type
Published Article
Journal
Annual Review of Immunology
Publisher
Annual Reviews
Publication Date
Apr 26, 2021
Volume
39
Pages
199–226
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1146/annurev-immunol-093019-124155
Source
Annual Reviews
Keywords
License
Yellow

Abstract

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease that is characterized by the inappropriate invasion of lymphocytes and monocytes into the central nervous system (CNS), where they orchestrate the demyelination of axons, leading to physical and cognitive disability. There are many reasons immunologists should be interested in MS. Aside from the fact that there is still significant unmet need for patients living with the progressive form of the disease, MS is a case study for how immune cells cross CNS barriers and subsequently interact with specialized tissue parenchymal cells. In this review, we describe the types of immune cells that infiltrate the CNS and then describe interactions between immune cells and glial cells in different types of lesions. Lastly, we provide evidence for CNS-compartmentalized immune cells and speculate on how this impacts disease progression for MS patients.

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