The nucleus was shown to be a site for inositol lipid cycle which can be affected by treatment of quiescent cells with growth factors such as IGF-I. In fact, the exposure of Swiss 3T3 cells to IGF-I results in a rapid and transient increase in nuclear PLC beta 1 activity. In addition, several other reports have shown the involvement of PLC beta 1 in nuclear signalling in different cell types. Indeed, PLC beta 1 differs from the PLC gamma and della isozymes in that it has a long COOH-terminal sequence which contains a cluster of lysine residues that are critical for association with the nucleus. Although the demonstration of PtInsP and PtdInsP2 hydrolysis by nuclear PLC beta 1 established the existence of nuclear PLC signalling, the significance of this autonomous pathway in the nucleus has yet to be thoroughly clarified. By inducing both the inhibition of PLC beta 1 expression by antisense RNA and its overexpression we show that this nuclear PLC is essential for the onset of DNA synthesis following IGF-I stimulation of quiescent Swiss 3T3 cells. Moreover, using a different cell system, i.e. Friend erythroleukemia cells induced to differentiate towards erythrocytes, it has been evidenced that there is a relationship between the expression and activity of nuclear PLC beta 1 and the association of PI-PT alpha with the nucleus in that, when PLC activity ceases, in differentiated and resting cells at the same time there is a dramatic decrease of the association of PI-PT alpha with the nucleus.