In recent decades, the demand for replacement of damaged or broken tissues has increased; this poses the attention on problems related to low donor availability. For this reason, researchers focused their attention on the field of tissue engineering, which allows the development of scaffolds able to mimic the tissues’ extracellular matrix. However, tissue replacement and regeneration are complex since scaffolds need to guarantee an adequate hierarchical structured morphology as well as adequate mechanical, chemical, and physical properties to stand the stresses and enhance the new tissue formation. For this purpose, the use of inorganic materials as fillers for the scaffolds has gained great interest in tissue engineering applications, due to their wide range of physicochemical properties as well as their capability to induce biological responses. However, some issues still need to be faced to improve their efficacy. This review focuses on the description of the most effective inorganic nanomaterials (clays, nano-based nanomaterials, metal oxides, metallic nanoparticles) used in tissue engineering and their properties. Particular attention has been devoted to their combination with scaffolds in a wide range of applications. In particular, skin, orthopaedic, and neural tissue engineering have been considered.