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Innate immune recognition of viral infection

Authors
  • Kawai, Taro1
  • Akira, Shizuo1, 2
  • 1 Exploratory Research for Advanced Technology, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871, Japan , Osaka (Japan)
  • 2 Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871, Japan , Osaka (Japan)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Nature Immunology
Publisher
Springer Nature
Publication Date
Jan 19, 2006
Volume
7
Issue
2
Pages
131–137
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1038/ni1303
Source
Springer Nature
License
Yellow

Abstract

Induction of the antiviral innate immune response depends on recognition of viral components by host pattern-recognition receptors. Members of the Toll-like receptor family have emerged as key sensors that recognize viral components such as nucleic acids. Toll-like receptor signaling results in the production of type I interferon and inflammatory cytokines and leads to dendritic cell maturation and establishment of antiviral immunity. Cells also express cytoplasmic RNA helicases that function as alternative pattern-recognition receptors through recognition of double-stranded RNA produced during virus replication. These two classes of pattern-recognition receptor molecules are expressed in different intracellular compartments and induce type I interferon responses via distinct signaling pathways.

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