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Innate Immune Modulation by GM-CSF and IL-3 in Health and Disease

Authors
  • Borriello, Francesco
  • Galdiero, Maria Rosaria
  • Varricchi, Gilda
  • Loffredo, Stefania
  • Spadaro, Giuseppe
  • Marone, Gianni
Publication Date
Feb 15, 2019
Source
MDPI
Keywords
Language
English
License
Green
External links

Abstract

Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and inteleukin-3 (IL-3) have long been known as mediators of emergency myelopoiesis, but recent evidence has highlighted their critical role in modulating innate immune effector functions in mice and humans. This new wealth of knowledge has uncovered novel aspects of the pathogenesis of a range of disorders, including infectious, neoplastic, autoimmune, allergic and cardiovascular diseases. Consequently, GM-CSF and IL-3 are now being investigated as therapeutic targets for some of these disorders, and some phase I/II clinical trials are already showing promising results. There is also pre-clinical and clinical evidence that GM-CSF can be an effective immunostimulatory agent when being combined with anti-cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (anti-CTLA-4) in patients with metastatic melanoma as well as in novel cancer immunotherapy approaches. Finally, GM-CSF and to a lesser extent IL-3 play a critical role in experimental models of trained immunity by acting not only on bone marrow precursors but also directly on mature myeloid cells. Altogether, characterizing GM-CSF and IL-3 as central mediators of innate immune activation is poised to open new therapeutic avenues for several immune-mediated disorders and define their potential in the context of immunotherapies.

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