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Innate Immune Cells in the Adipose Tissue in Health and Metabolic Disease

Authors
  • Michailidou, Zoi
  • Gomez-Salazar, Mario
  • Alexaki, Vasileia Ismini
Type
Published Article
Journal
Journal of Innate Immunity
Publisher
S. Karger AG
Publication Date
Apr 13, 2021
Volume
14
Issue
1
Pages
4–30
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1159/000515117
PMID: 33849008
Source
Karger
Keywords
Disciplines
  • Review Article
License
Green
External links

Abstract

Metabolic disorders, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, are characterized by chronic low-grade tissue and systemic inflammation. During obesity, the adipose tissue undergoes immunometabolic and functional transformation. Adipose tissue inflammation is driven by innate and adaptive immune cells and instigates insulin resistance. Here, we discuss the role of innate immune cells, that is, macrophages, neutrophils, eosinophils, natural killer cells, innate lymphoid type 2 cells, dendritic cells, and mast cells, in the adipose tissue in the healthy (lean) and diseased (obese) state and describe how their function is shaped by the obesogenic microenvironment, and humoral, paracrine, and cellular interactions. Moreover, we particularly outline the role of hypoxia as a central regulator in adipose tissue inflammation. Finally, we discuss the long-lasting effects of adipose tissue inflammation and its potential reversibility through drugs, caloric restriction, or exercise training.

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