This article for continuing education describes osseous injuries of the upper cervical spine and their treatment. Fractures of the occipital condyles are very rare and mostly result from high-speed traumas. These are usually managed conservatively. Atlas fractures can also usually be treated with immobilization of the cervical spine; in cases of unstable or dislocated injuries, various surgical procedures are employed. Three types of axis fractures can be distinguished: odontoid fractures, traumatic spondylolistheses, which also affect the isthmic region, and atypical fractures in the corpus region. The incidence, classification, diagnostic workup, standard treatment, and characteristics of the fractures mentioned are presented in detail.