The first hour of a shift in a mine is characterized by a large movement of miners from incoming and outgoing shifts, in addition to safety and maintenance checks of mining equipment. These activities rely on communication to ensure a safe transition between shifts. This study aims to identify risk factors for injury among miners during the first hour of a work shift and to characterize injury outcomes. Data from U.S. Mine Safety and Health Administration Part 50 reports, 1983-2015, were used to identify injuries occurring within the first hour of a shift. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate predictors of injuries occurring during the first shift-hour and to assess the outcome of these injuries. Out of the 545,537 cases included in the analysis, 16,446 injuries occurred during the first hour of a shift. Risk factors associated with these injuries included being female, being older, working on Sunday and Monday, having an irregular shift start, working night shifts, employed in surface mining operations, and mine operations with <200 employees, and mechanisms of injury related to falls, movement of equipment and personnel, and being struck by or caught between boxes and containers. Injurious incidents occurring during the first hour of work were associated with mass injury events involving five or more workers (aOR = 3.58; 95% CI: 2.77, 4.64). Although injury rates were substantially lower during the first hour of work compared to all other work hours, this study identified risk factors and mechanisms of injury that are highly preventable during the first hour of work. © 2020 Wiley Periodicals LLC.