Anti-inflammatory effects of elm tree have been shown in several studies. Besides this, protective effects of components of elm bark on damaged tissue have also been described. This study was carried out to investigate the antitumour potential of an ethanolic extract isolated from Ulmus laevis in the hormone-dependent endometrial carcinoma cell line RL95-2. A range of 2.5-500 microg/ml of elm bark extract was used as standard concentrations. The molecular-chemical composition of the bark extract was analysed by pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry. The influence of the bark extracts was determined on cell vitality [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide test], cell proliferation (5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine test) and cytotoxicity (lactate dehydrogenase test) in the human endometrial carcinoma cell line RL 95-2. By pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry, the main substance classes of the extract as a composition of sterols/triterpenes, free fatty acids and a group of phenols, lignin monomers and flavonoids was identified. Our study showed a significant inhibition of cell vitality and proliferation measured by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide test up to 5 microg/ml extract and up to 100 microg/ml according to the 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine test. Concentrations of 500 microg/ml induced a significant inhibition of cell vitality up to 80% and cell proliferation up to 81.5%. A significant cytotoxity was not observed. The results lead to the assumption that the bark extract from Ulmus laevis has antiproliferation and anticancer potential in hormone-dependent endometrial carcinoma cells.