Orf virus (ORFV) infects sheep and goat tissues, resulting in severe proliferative lesions. To analyze cellular protein expression in ORFV-infected goat skin fibroblast (GSF) cells, we used two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ). The proteomics approach was used along with quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) to detect differentially expressed proteins in ORFV-infected GSF cells and mock-infected GSF cells. A total of 282 differentially expressed proteins were identified. It was found that 222 host proteins were upregulated and 60 were downregulated following viral infection. We confirmed that these proteins were differentially expressed and found that heat shock 70-kDa protein 1B (HSPA1B) was differentially expressed and localized in the cytoplasm. It was also noted that HSPA1B caused inhibition of viral proliferation, in the middle and late stages of viral infection. The differentially expressed proteins were associated with the biological processes of viral binding, cell structure, signal transduction, cell adhesion, and cell proliferation.