Incubation of rabbit muscle glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) with the antibiotic pentalenolactone (1) resulted in time-dependent, irreversible inhibition of GAPDH. The kinetics of inactivation were biphasic, exhibiting an initial rapid phase and a slower second phase. Pentalenolactone methyl ester (2) also irreversibly inactivated GADPH, albeit at a slower rate and with a higher KI. The substrate glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G-3-P) afforded protection against inactivation by 1, whereas the presence of NAD+ in the incubation mixture stimulated the inactivation by increasing the apparent affinity of the enzyme for the inhibitor. In steady-state kinetic experiments, 1 acted as a competitive inhibitor of GAPDH with respect to G-3-P but exhibited uncompetitive inhibition with respect to NAD+. Inactivation of NAD+-free apo-GAPDH by 1 showed simple pseudo-first-order kinetics. By titrating the free thiol residues of partially inactivated GAPDH, it was found that both pentalenolactone and pentalenolactone methyl ester react with all four Cys-SH residues of the tetrameric GAPDH.