T-cell fibronectin (FN) is a unique cellular FN that is rapidly synthesized by memory T cells in response to antigen. Monoclonal anti-T-cell FN antibodies have been used to clarify the role of T-cell FN in the in vivo expression of delayed hypersensitivity. IgGl(kappa) mouse anti-human T-cell FN monoclonal antibodies 231 and 248 recognized epitopes on the FN cell-binding domain, were cross-reactive with plasma FN, and neutralized human and guinea-pig T-cell FN monocyte agglutinating activity. When injected intradermally together with tuberculin or 30 min before topical application of reactive sensitizer, antibody 231 significantly decreased macroscopic expression of guinea-pig delayed hypersensitivity at 24 hr in a dose-dependent manner. Similar doses of antibody 248 caused a slight statistically non-significant enhancement of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) expression. Inhibition of visible skin responses was not associated with qualitative or quantitative changes in cellular infiltrates at the reaction site. Antibody 231 modulated expression of delayed hypersensitivity in a qualitatively and quantitatively similar manner to the FN-binding mycobacterial antigen 85 proteins. This is consistent with anti-T-cell FN and antigen 85 acting on the same molecule in vivo.