Angiogenesis has become a major target in cancer therapy. However, current therapeutic strategies have their limitations and raise several problems. In most tumours, anti-angiogenesis treatment targeting VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) has only limited overall survival benefit compared with conventional chemotherapy alone, and reveals several specific forms of resistance to anti-VEGF treatment. There is growing evidence that anti-VEGF treatment may induce tumour cell invasion by selecting highly invasive tumour cells or hypoxia-resistant cells, or by up-regulating angiogenic alternative pathways such as FGFs (fibroblast growth factors) or genes triggering new invasive programmes. We have identified new genes up-regulated during glioma growth on the chick CAM (chorioallantoic membrane). Our results indicate that anti-angiogenesis treatment in the experimental glioma model drives expression of critical genes which relate to disease aggressiveness in glioblastoma patients. We have identified a molecular mechanism in tumour cells that allows the switch from an angiogenic to invasive programme. Furthermore, we are focusing our research on alternative inhibitors that act, in part, independently of VEGF. These are endogenous molecules that play a role in the control of tumour growth and may constitute a starting point for further development of novel therapeutic or diagnostic tools.