Inhalation injuries comprise three distinct clinical entities that may be classified according to the time of onset of symptoms, etiologic agents, and the anatomic location of injury. These entities are carbon monoxide toxicity, upper airway obstruction, and smoke inhalation or chemical injury. Each has a distinct pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, treatment, and prognosis. The emergency management of inhalation injury is frequently based on the health professional's degree of suspicion despite the availability of sophisticated diagnostic tests. Early aggressive treatment, including maintaining a patent airway, administering humidified oxygen and bronchodilators, and providing pulmonary toilet, is necessary to ensure the best possible outcome. Understanding the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, medical management, and nursing implications of inhalation injuries can improve patient survival.