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Information and communication technology to enhance continuing professional development (CPD) and continuing medical education (CME) for Rwanda: a scoping review of reviews

  • Ngenzi, Joseph Lune1, 2
  • Scott, Richard E.1, 3
  • Mars, Maurice1, 4
  • 1 School of Nursing & Public Health, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa , Durban (South Africa)
  • 2 University of Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda , Kigali (Rwanda)
  • 3 Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada , Calgary (Canada)
  • 4 Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia , Adelaide (Australia)
Published Article
BMC Medical Education
Springer (Biomed Central Ltd.)
Publication Date
Apr 29, 2021
DOI: 10.1186/s12909-021-02607-w
Springer Nature


BackgroundAccess to high quality continuing professional development (CPD) is necessary for healthcare professionals to retain competency within the ever-evolving worlds of medicine and health. Most low- and middle-income countries, including Rwanda, have a critical shortage of healthcare professionals and limited access to CPD opportunities. This study scoped the literature using review articles related to the use of information and communication technology (ICT) and video conferencing for the delivery of CPD to healthcare professionals. The goal was to inform decision-makers of relevant and suitable approaches for a low-income country such as Rwanda.MethodsPubMed and hand searching was used. Only review articles written in English, published between 2010 and 2019, and reporting the use of ICT for CPD were included.ResultsSix review articles were included in this study. Various delivery modes (face to face, pure elearning and blended learning) and technology approaches (Internet-based and non-Internet based) were reported. All types of technology approach enhanced knowledge, skills and attitudes. Pure elearning is comparable to face-to-face delivery and better than ‘no intervention’, and blended learning showed mixed results compared to traditional face-to-face learning. Participant satisfaction was attributed to ease of use, easy access and interactive content.ConclusionThe use of technology to enhance CPD delivery is acceptable with most technology approaches improving knowledge, skills and attitude. For the intervention to work effectively, CPD courses must be well designed: needs-based, based on sound educational theories, interactive, easy to access, and affordable. Participants must possess the required devices and technological literacy.

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