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Influenza vaccines to control influenza-associated bacterial infection: where do we stand?

Authors
  • Christopoulou, Ioanna1
  • Roose, Kenny
  • Ibañez, Lorena Itatí
  • Saelens, Xavier
  • 1 VIB Inflammation Research Center, Technologiepark 927, Ghent, Belgium. , (Belgium)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Expert Review of Vaccines
Publisher
Informa UK (Taylor & Francis)
Publication Date
Jan 01, 2015
Volume
14
Issue
1
Pages
55–67
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1586/14760584.2015.957191
PMID: 25209381
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Influenza A virus is a pathogen that is feared for its capacity to cause pandemics. In this review, we illustrate the clinical evidence which support the theory that bacterial co-infection is a considerable risk factor for exacerbated disease during pandemic and seasonal influenza, including infection with influenza B viruses. We provide an overview of the multiple and diverse mechanisms that help explain how influenza creates an opportunity for replication of secondary bacterial infections. Influenza vaccines and pneumococcal vaccines are widely used and often in overlapping target groups. We summarize the evidence for a protective effect of influenza immunization against bacterial infections, and vice versa of pneumococcal vaccines against influenza-associated pneumonia and lethality. It is important that future implementation of broadly protective influenza vaccines also takes into account protection against secondary bacterial infection.

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