Background: Knowledge plays a crucial role in supporting the European Union model based on economic growth, social responsibility, and sustainable development. To improve companies’ performance, one must reflect on new forms of knowledge and develop new indicators to measure them. Objectives: The goal of the paper is to investigate the impact of the selected factors of knowledge on companies’ performance in Slovenia. Methods/Approach: A questionnaire was created and sent to small and medium-sized enterprises in Slovenia. The principle axis factoring method was used to identify the factors of knowledge and of companies’ performance, and a regression analysis was conducted to determine the influence of the selected knowledge factors on companies’ performance. Results: The establishment of scientists’ collaboration with companies has a positive impact on companies’ performance, but the obstacles to the establishment of scientists’ collaboration with companies do not have any impact. Conclusions: The results could be useful for governments and companies in the adoption of measures aimed at strengthening scientists’ collaboration with companies. Further research can be oriented toward the common synergy index (e.g., the knowledge triangle).