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Influence of temperature and pH on the nonenzymatic reduction of triphenyltetrazolium chloride.

Authors
  • Mahmoud, N S
  • Ghaly, A E
Type
Published Article
Journal
Biotechnology Progress
Publisher
Wiley (John Wiley & Sons)
Publication Date
Jan 01, 2004
Volume
20
Issue
1
Pages
346–353
Identifiers
PMID: 14763862
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

The effects of temperature and pH on the nonenzymatic (chemical) reduction of triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) to triphenyl formazan (TF) in cheese whey and municipal solid waste compost samples were studied. Ten different incubation temperatures and 13 pH levels were tested. The study showed that the TTC could be reduced nonenzymatically at high temperatures and/or under alkaline pH conditions. The nonenzymatic TTC reduction was observed at pH values greater than 9.5 and 11.0 for the cheese whey and compost, respectively. The TTC chemical reduction rate followed the same trend in both media. The TF content increased with increasing the pH value, reaching its maximum at a pH of 12, then decreased and was not detected at a pH of 13. The TTC was also reduced nonenzymatically at temperatures higher than 70 and 85 degrees C for cheese whey and compost, respectively. Evaporation did not seem to have any significant effect on the TTC chemical reduction since less than 3% of water content was lost at a temperature of 100 degrees C. It was noticed that the TF yield in cheese whey samples was higher than that in compost samples. This was due to the higher moisture content of cheese whey and the presence of copper in the compost samples, which reacted chemically with the TF causing reduction in the red color. For a given incubation period, the effect of pH on the TTC chemical reduction was more significant than the effect of incubation temperature (at a 2 h incubation period, 57.5% and 17.9% of the TTC were chemically reduced at a pH of 12 compared to 10.9% and 7.7% at an incubation temperature of 100 degrees C, for cheese whey and compost, respectively). Among the six metals tested (Ca, Cu, K, Na, Ni, and Zn) only Cu affected the color intensity of the TF. The activation energy of the TTC chemical reduction was 168,808 and 239,102 J/mol in cheese whey and municipal solid compost, respectively. For dehydrogenase activity measurement, the pH of the samples and the incubation temperature should not be higher than 9 and 60 degrees C in order to ensure that the TTC reduction is caused only by the biochemical reaction. Measuring the color intensity of TF in waste samples that contain copper could give misleading results as a result of the formation of formazan copper complex, which reduces the red color.

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