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The Influence of Socioeconomic Status on Snacking and Weight among Adolescents: A Scoping Review

Authors
  • Williamson, Victoria G.1
  • Dilip, Abhaya2
  • Dillard, Jackson R.2
  • Morgan-Daniel, Jane
  • Lee, Alexandra M.
  • Cardel, Michelle I.
  • 1 Department of Psychology, College of Arts and Sciences, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403, USA
  • 2 (J.R.D.)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Nutrients
Publisher
MDPI AG
Publication Date
Jan 07, 2020
Volume
12
Issue
1
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3390/nu12010167
PMID: 31936076
PMCID: PMC7019740
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
License
Green

Abstract

Eating behaviors, including unhealthy snacking or excessive snacking leading to excess calorie consumption, may contribute to obesity among adolescents. Socioeconomic status (SES) also significantly influences eating behaviors, and low SES is associated with increased risk for obesity. However, little is known regarding the relationship between snacking behavior and SES among adolescents and how this may contribute to obesity-related outcomes. The primary objective of this scoping review was to review the literature to assess and characterize the relationship between SES and snacking in adolescents. The secondary objective was to assess weight-related outcomes and their relation to snacking habits. Included articles were published between January 2000 and May 2019; written in English, Portuguese, or Spanish; and focused on adolescents (13–17 years). In total, 14 bibliographic databases were searched, and seven studies met the inclusion criteria. Preliminary evidence from the seven included studies suggests a weak but potential link between SES and snacking. Additionally, these dietary patterns seemed to differ by sex and income type of country. Finally, only three of the included studies addressed weight-related outcomes, but the overall available evidence suggests that snacking does not significantly affect weight-related outcomes. Due to the small number of included studies, results should be interpreted with caution.

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