The effects of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on the ovulation process were studied in a recirculating perfusion model using ovaries from virgin rabbits. Ovulation frequency, time of ovulation, and progesterone release from the ovaries were examined after the addition of PGE2, either alone or with luteinizing hormone (LH) in the presence or absence of indomethacin. The stimulatory effect of LH on ovulation was totally blocked if the ovaries were exposed to indomethacin at the same time. Ovaries treated with PGE2 alone did not ovulate, and PGE2 was unable to restore indomethacin-blocked ovulation. Conversely, the frequency of ovulation was reduced in ovaries treated with PGE2 and LH compared with controls receiving only LH. There was no measurable difference in the pattern of progesterone release between ovaries simultaneously treated with LH and indomethacin and LH-treated controls. Ovaries exposed to PGE2 alone showed only a slight increase of progesterone release in the medium, while those treated with PGE2 in combination with LH in the perfusate showed a smaller progesterone release than those treated with LH alone. The results confirm the blocking effect on ovulation by indomethacin. PGE2 could not reverse this effect, but instead reduced the number of LH-induced follicular ruptures. Indomethacin had no effect on progesterone levels, while PGE2 (which alone showed a slight stimulating effect on the steroid concentration) together with LH counteracted the effect of LH on progesterone release.