The effect of concentrated cell-free extracellular material from stationary-phase cultures of Burkholderia cepacia 10661 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 on virulence factor production in B. cepacia was assessed. While increasing concentrations of the B. cepacia exoproduct caused a slight increase in siderophore, lipase, and protease production in the producing organism, a significant in productivity was observed for all three virulence factors with the addition of the PAO1 exoproduct. Moreover, the addition of the exoproduct from a strain of P. aeruginosa producing reduced amounts of autoinducer caused only a slightly greater response than that of the control. Both B. cepacia 10661 and P. aeruginosa PAO1, along with two matched clinical isolates of both organisms obtained from a cystic fibrotic patient, were shown to produce variable amounts of three different types of autoinducer. The potential for interspecies signalling in microbial pathogenicity is discussed.