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Influence of Nonuniform Micron-Scale Strain Distributions on the Electrical Reorientation of Magnetic Microstructures in a Composite Multiferroic Heterostructure.

Authors
  • Lo Conte, Roberto1
  • Xiao, Zhuyun2
  • Chen, Cai3
  • Stan, Camelia V4
  • Gorchon, Jon1, 5
  • El-Ghazaly, Amal1
  • Nowakowski, Mark E1
  • Sohn, Hyunmin2
  • Pattabi, Akshay1
  • Scholl, Andreas4
  • Tamura, Nobumichi4
  • Sepulveda, Abdon3
  • Carman, Gregory P3
  • Candler, Robert N2, 3, 6
  • Bokor, Jeffrey1, 5
  • 1 Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science , University of California , Berkeley , California 94720 , United States. , (United States)
  • 2 Department of Electrical Engineering , University of California , Los Angeles , California 90095 , United States. , (United States)
  • 3 Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering , University of California , Los Angeles , California 90095 , United States. , (United States)
  • 4 Advanced Light Source , Lawrence Berkeley National Lab , Berkeley , California 94720 , United States. , (United States)
  • 5 Materials Sciences Division , Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory , Berkeley , California 94720 , United States. , (United States)
  • 6 California NanoSystems Institute , Los Angeles , California 90095 , United States. , (United States)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Nano Letters
Publisher
American Chemical Society
Publication Date
Mar 14, 2018
Volume
18
Issue
3
Pages
1952–1961
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b05342
PMID: 29481758
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Composite multiferroic systems, consisting of a piezoelectric substrate coupled with a ferromagnetic thin film, are of great interest from a technological point of view because they offer a path toward the development of ultralow power magnetoelectric devices. The key aspect of those systems is the possibility to control magnetization via an electric field, relying on the magneto-elastic coupling at the interface between the piezoelectric and the ferromagnetic components. Accordingly, a direct measurement of both the electrically induced magnetic behavior and of the piezo-strain driving such behavior is crucial for better understanding and further developing these materials systems. In this work, we measure and characterize the micron-scale strain and magnetic response, as a function of an applied electric field, in a composite multiferroic system composed of 1 and 2 μm squares of Ni fabricated on a prepoled [Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3]0.69-[PbTiO3]0.31 (PMN-PT) single crystal substrate by X-ray microdiffraction and X-ray photoemission electron microscopy, respectively. These two complementary measurements of the same area on the sample indicate the presence of a nonuniform strain which strongly influences the reorientation of the magnetic state within identical Ni microstructures along the surface of the sample. Micromagnetic simulations confirm these experimental observations. This study emphasizes the critical importance of surface and interface engineering on the micron-scale in composite multiferroic structures and introduces a robust method to characterize future devices on these length scales.

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