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Influence of molecular structure on half-life and hydrolysis of dipeptides in plasma: importance of glycine as N-terminal amino acid residue.

Authors
  • Adibi, S A
  • Paleos, G A
  • Morse, E L
Type
Published Article
Journal
Metabolism
Publisher
Elsevier
Publication Date
Sep 01, 1986
Volume
35
Issue
9
Pages
830–836
Identifiers
PMID: 3747839
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

To investigate the effect of molecular structure on plasma disappearance and metabolism of dipeptides, rats were injected intravenously with individual dipeptides, and at various intervals after injection, dipeptide and amino acid concentrations were measured in plasma, tissues, and urine. In addition, plasma hydrolase activity against individual dipeptides was investigated. The half-lives of Ala-Leu, Ala-Tyr, and Ala-Gln were shorter than those of dipeptides with glycine substituting for alanine. Furthermore, the increases in plasma concentrations of leucine, tyrosine, and glutamine and rates of dipeptide hydrolysis by plasma enzymes were far greater with alanyl than glycyl dipeptides. In fact, Ala-Leu behaved like a mixture of corresponding free amino acids in raising the plasma concentration of leucine while Gly-Leu did not. There was no significant difference in either plasma half-life or hydrolysis when Leu-Gly and Leu-Ala were used as substrates, but both had rapid rates of hydrolysis in plasma. In comparison to Gly-Leu, Phe-Leu and Arg-Leu had shorter half-lives and greater rates of hydrolysis in plasma. On the other hand, Asp-Leu had a slower rate of plasma hydrolysis than Gly-Leu, but its excretion in the urine was much greater than that of Gly-Leu. In contrast to Gly-Leu and Ala-Leu, Gly-Pro was detected intracellularly in liver, muscle, and particularly, kidney. In fact, the intracellular concentration of Gly-Pro in kidney was either equal to or greater than Gly-Pro concentration in plasma. Increases in intracellular amino acid concentration after injection of individual dipeptides were considerably greater in the kidney than in either liver or muscle.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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