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Influence of Moderate Cigarette Smoking on the Peri-Implant Clinicoradiographic Inflammatory Parameters Around Cement- and Screw-Retained Dental Implants.

Authors
  • Alqahtani, Mana1
  • 1 Faculty of Medicine, University of Tabuk, Tabouk, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. , (Saudi Arabia)
Type
Published Article
Journal
The Journal of oral implantology
Publication Date
Dec 01, 2021
Volume
47
Issue
6
Pages
473–477
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1563/aaid-joi-D-19-00352
PMID: 33270836
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

The aim of this study was to assess the influence of moderate cigarette smoking on the clinical (bleeding on probing [BoP] and probing depth [PD]) and radiographic (crestal bone resorption [CBR]) parameters around cement- and screw-retained dental implants at 5-year follow-up. A questionnaire was used to collect information about age, gender, smoking history, duration of implants in function, jaw location of the implant, and daily toothbrushing and flossing. Peri-implant BoP, PD, and CBR were measured in all groups. Group comparisons were performed using 1-way analysis of variance, and for multiple comparisons, the Bonferroni post hoc adjustment test was performed. The level of significance was set at P < .05. Forty-eight patients (25 smokers and 23 nonsmokers) had cement-retained dental implants, and 48 (24 smokers and 24 nonsmokers) had screw-retained dental implants. Among patients with cement- and screw-retained dental implants, PD (P < .05) and CBR (P < .05) were significantly higher among smokers than nonsmokers. The peri-implant sites that demonstrated BoP were statistically significantly higher among nonsmokers (P < .05) than smokers among patients with cement- and screw-retained dental implants. There was no statistically significant difference in peri-implant PD and CBR among smokers with cement- and screw-retained dental implants. Among nonsmokers with cement and screw-retained dental implants, there was no statistically significant difference in BoP, PD, or CBR. Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased PD and CBR around cement- and screw-retained dental implants. Cigarette-smoking increases peri-implant soft-tissue inflammation as well as loss of crestal bone, and this relationship is independent of the type of implant retention protocol used. The author recommends that cement- and screw-retained dental implants are suitable for prosthesis restoration in nonsmokers. Further studies on dual smokers (individuals smoking cigarettes and other forms of tobacco products) are needed related to the clinicoradiographic inflammatory parameters around cement- and screw-retained dental implants.

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