86 patients with posttraumatic defects of median and ulnar nerves were examined. Autoneuroplasty was performed at all of patients: in 42 cases--in combination with sympathectomy (thoracoscopic clipping of Th3-4 sympathetic ganglions), in 44 cases--without sympathectomy. Ultrasonography of nerve trunks, stimulation electroneuromyography, computer thermography, laser Doppler flowmetry with spectral wavelet-analysis of blood flow oscillations were used during checkup. For the first time was shown that induced sympathectomy has positive activating influence on restoring innervation and tissue trophics in the course of posttraumatic nerve regeneration. Combination of autoneuroplasty with induced sympathectomy contributes to a more complete restoration of motor and sensory nerve fibres, helps to normalize blood flow in microvascular bed and thermotopography of the damaged segment of the extremity including the previously denervated area.