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Influence of immune aging on vaccine responses.

Authors
  • Gustafson, Claire E1
  • Kim, Chulwoo1
  • Weyand, Cornelia M1
  • Goronzy, Jörg J2
  • 1 Division of Immunology and Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, Calif; Department of Medicine, Veterans Administration Healthcare System, Palo Alto, Calif.
  • 2 Division of Immunology and Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, Calif; Department of Medicine, Veterans Administration Healthcare System, Palo Alto, Calif. Electronic address: [email protected]
Type
Published Article
Journal
The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology
Publication Date
May 01, 2020
Volume
145
Issue
5
Pages
1309–1321
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/j.jaci.2020.03.017
PMID: 32386655
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Impaired vaccine responses in older individuals are associated with alterations in both the quantity and quality of the T-cell compartment with age. As reviewed herein, the T-cell response to vaccination requires a fine balance between the generation of inflammatory effector T cells versus follicular helper T (TFH) cells that mediate high-affinity antibody production in tandem with the induction of long-lived memory cells for effective recall immunity. During aging, we find that this balance is tipped where T cells favor short-lived effector but not memory or TFH responses. Consistently, vaccine-induced antibodies commonly display a lower protective capacity. Mechanistically, multiple, potentially targetable, changes in T cells have been identified that contribute to these age-related defects, including posttranscription regulation, T-cell receptor signaling, and metabolic function. Although research into the induction of tissue-specific immunity by vaccines and with age is still limited, current mechanistic insights provide a framework for improved design of age-specific vaccination strategies that require further evaluation in a clinical setting. Copyright © 2020 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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