Metatarsus primus elevatus (MPE), a dorsal elevation of the first metatarsal in relation to the lesser metatarsals on lateral-view radiographs, is an indicator of hallux rigidus. The angle between the articular surfaces of the base of the first metatarsal and the anterior part of the medial cuneiform (M1C1A) reflects the sagittal instability of the first tarsometatarsal (TMT) joint. MPE may also indicate instability of the first metatarsal. The purpose of this study was to identify the influence of hallux valgus (HV) and flatfoot (FF) deformities on measurements obtained from first metatarsal-related radiographic images. Standing radiographic images of 134 feet were investigated. In dorsoplantar-view radiographs, HV and intermetatarsal angles were evaluated. The position of the medial sesamoid was classified with a grading system (Hardy score). In lateral-view radiographs, MPE, M1C1A, and Meary's angle were measured. The subjects were divided into 4 groups: the normal group (G1), HV(-)FF(-); the HV group (G2), HV(+)FF(-); the FF group (G3), HV(-)FF(+); and the dual group (G4), HV(+)FF(+). The radiographic parameters were compared among the groups. MPE in the HV patients (G2 and G4) was less than that in the non-HV participants (G1 and G3). MPE in G4 was less than that in G3. The odds ratios of the Hardy score were higher in G2, G3 and G4 than in G1. The ratios were higher in the FF patients (G3 and G4) than in the non-FF participants (G1 and G2) and were higher in G4 than in G2. FF affects sesamoid dislocation, and the combination of HV and FF further increases sesamoid dislocation. Combined with M1C1A and the Hardy score, MPE may be a useful indicator of three-dimensional instability of the first TMT joint. First TMT joint-related operations may be considered for severe HV treatment in G4 patients. Copyright © 2019 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.