Fried garlic oil has been widely used in traditional Chinese cuisine and, recently, has become increasingly popular in food manufacturing. In this study, the effects of different initial and final frying temperature on the flavor characteristics and sensory profile of fried garlic oil were investigated using solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) combined with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Results showed that the content of flavor compounds changed significantly as the frying temperature was increased. The sample that was treated at an initial temperature of 115 °C and a final temperature of 155 °C contained the highest amount of thioethers and heterocycles, mainly comprising dimethyl trisulfide, diallyl disulfide, and 2-vinyl-4H-1,2-dithiin. Partial least-squares regression elucidated the sensory attributes of fried and roasted garlic, showing a high correlation with thioethers and pyrazines. Furthermore, changes in the 2,6-dimethylpyrazine, dimethyl trisulfide, and diallyl disulfide concentrations were detected every 5 °C during the frying process (initial temperature, 115 °C / final temperature, 155 °C). Dimethyl trisulfide and diallyl disulfide concentrations showed irregular, downward trends, while 2,6-dimethylpyrazine concentration exhibited an increasing trend.