Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is well known to be produced by many human tumors, and it also plays an important role in tumor neovasculature formation. In addition to angiogenesis promotion, recent basic research has shown that VEGF has another function that allows it to inhibit dendritic cell (DC) maturation. However, very little is known about VEGF-dependent DC inhibition in a clinical setting. In this study, we analyzed the immunohistochemical expression of VEGF, microvessel density (MVD), and intratumoral DC infiltration in 132 surgically resected lung cancer specimens. We also evaluated the influence of these factors on their survival by a multivariate statistical analysis. VEGF expression was positively related to MVD (P = 0.0003) and negatively related to the degree of DC infiltration (P = 0.0232). A multivariate analysis also showed the VEGF expression, MVD, and DC infiltration to be independent prognostic factors. Moreover, we also accurately analyzed patient prognoses using the double stratification method for determining VEGF expression and DC infiltration. The patient group with a high VEGF expression/low DC infiltration showed a worse prognosis (P < 0.0001), whereas the group with a low VEGF expression/high DC infiltration had a better prognosis (P = 0.0001).