The effect of renal function of an augmentation of the excretory renal mass was investigated in 10 dogs without drug treatment and in 10 animals with alpha-receptor blockade. In the untreated group, augmentation of excretory renal mass by transplantation into the neck of one pair of kidneys isolated from another animal caused the following changes in the kidneys in situ: marked elevation in CPAH, slight decrease in Cinulin, slight diminution of urine excretion and a pronounced fall in sodium excretion. The amount of urine and sodium excreted by the four kidneys was identical with that previously excreted by the two kidneys in situ. In animals with alpha-receptor blockade, augmentation of the excretory renal mass had the following consequences in the in situ kidneys, CPAH, and Cinulin remained unchanged while urine and sodium excretion decreased to the same extent as in the untreated control group. The amount of urine and of sodium excreted by the four kidneys was the same as that excreted by the kidneys in situ, prior to transplantation of isolated kidneys, i.e. before the augmentation of excretory renal mass. It seems that the decrease in sodium excretion of the kidneys in situ was not due to the haemodynamic changes evoked by the load on the circulation; it was rather consequence of some quick, presumably humoral, regulation. The diminution of sodium excretion in the kidneys in situ after augmentation of the excretory renal mass has been ascribed to an increased utilization by the four kidneys of the natriuretic factor(s), i.e. to a diminution in the plasma level of the natriuretic hormone.