The distribution of labeled microspheres within the renal cortex was used to evaluate the influence of physiological amounts of antidiuretic hormone on intrarenal blood flow distribution in hypophysectomized dogs and in rats with hereditary diabetes insipidus. In both species, intravenous infusions of ADH caused a significant decrease in the ratio of inner to outer cortical blood flow. The change in blood flow distribution observed in the hypophysectomized dog with ADH was primarily a consequence of a decrease in inner cortical blood flow. No consistent changes in outer cortical blood flow were found. Also in the dog, glomerular filtration rates and electrolyte excretion rates (Na and K) increased following ADH. In contrast, ADH infusion into Brattleboro rats caused no change in glomerular filtration or excretion of Na and K.