In this work, the effect of electrochemical oxidation treatment on activated carbon fibers (ACFs) was studied in the context of Cr(VI), Cu(II), and Ni(II) adsorption behavior. Ten weight percent phosphoric acid (A-ACFs) and ammonia (B-ACFs) were used for acidic and basic electrolytes, respectively. Surface properties of ACFs were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The specific surface area and the pore structure were evaluated from nitrogen adsorption data at 77 K. As a result, the electrochemical oxidation treatment led to an increase in the amount of oxygen-containing functional groups. Also, the adsorption capacity of the electrochemically oxidized ACFs was improved in the order B-ACFs > A-ACFs > untreated-ACFs, in spite of a decrease in specific surface area which resulted from pore blocking by functional groups and pore destruction by acidic electrolyte. It was clearly found that the heavy metal ions were largely influenced by the functional groups on the ACF surfaces.